History of Rioja

Rioja is the Spanish Flagship for red still wines in the world . Rioja has got to this level today thanks to a past full of events related to wine. All these events explain the history of Riojan wine. Roman objects used for wine production have been found in Rioja. These containers were used for fermenting wine. Their presence confirms the production of wine in Rioja since ancient times. Subsequently it was the monasteries which would have an important role in the production of wine. There is an act by which the King of Navarre donated vineyards to the Monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla.

Read more in Wine Tours Spain

10. The essentials of Wines from Spain. Wine tourism

This magic trip comes to an end but don´t be sad, today we are going to visit some bodegas and travel to the most famous spanish wine regions, La Rioja, Ribera del Duero, Priorat and Cava. And guess what? Yes we will taste their amazing wines.
We really hope you have enjoyed this journey across spanish wines.
See you soon!

Classification system of Rioja wines

We have to answer to this question very often during our winery tours in Rioja region. Wine is a highly regulated sector in the European Union and in the case of Spain the regulations are established at regional level by the “Consejos reguladores” or regulatory bodies. In the case of Rioja this is the Cnsejor Regulador del vino de Rioja, which establishes the regulation for Rioja wines on things like which varieties can be planted, maximum yield per acre permitted and so forth.

Original post: Wine Tours Spain

Spain’s gastronomy. Timelapse

More about Spanihs food: in this video you can have a quick glance of the wonders of Spanish food and wine culture:

Thanks to the variety of dishes and products in Spain, as well as its important chefs and outstanding restaurants, food becomes an art you will enjoy.

A country to savour. That’s Spain. You’ll be able to discover the exquisite and typical dishes of each area, the famous miniature canapés known as ‘pintxos’, some of the best wines in the world, and an avant-garde cuisine. We present the regional cuisine from all over the country, we tell you how to prepare particular recipes, where to find traditional markets, places to enjoy Spanish gastronomy… Why not come and see?

Texts by: http://www.spain.info

La Tienda: The best of Spain (in the US)

I just found this site: latienda.com, an online store that sells delicious Spanish food and other things in the US. This is just an extract from their site, so you can see the kind of food you can find there:

Finest Authentic Spanish Food

Food and family are the essence of Spain. Since 1996 we have been traveling the countryside of Spain seeking out remarkable foods, especially those made by small family producers. It is our mission to offer the very best food from Spain, thereby helping preserve traditional Spanish culture and cuisine. We hope you will enjoy this diverse and delicious collection of Spanish food.

Ham from Spain
Ham from Spain
Jamón – Spanish HamDistinctive Spanish ham types: Jamón Serrano and Jamón Ibérico
Chorizo & Sausages
Chorizo & Sausages
Chorizo y LonganizasSimple chorizo ingredients blended with pork for spectacular results

Sparkling New Year Experiences


My brain is limited – it can only support one obsession at a time. Generally, this blog wins, but last month I got hooked on the Doctor Who series (yes, I’m a science fiction junkie), and over the last couple of days, the Doctor Who was clearly winning over the blog writing, as I couldn’t stop watching. Taking the obsession under control, I will try to switch some attention to this beloved blog.

NY WinesNew Year’s day is a Sparkling wine time for me. It doesn’t have to be Champagne, but bubbles are indispensable part of the welcoming the New Year. And then January 1st is generally the day of bubbles – we have friends coming over for the small dinner and lots of bubbles on that first day of the New Year.

The 2014 was not an exception at all – so here are some of the Sparkling wines which…

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Wine grapes: Graciano

Graciano (grah sih-ahn-oh) is primarily a Spanish variety. Although it is not one of the major varieties used in bulk wines, there are a few thousand hectares of Graciano in the Ebro Valley where, along with Carignan and Tempranillo, it is an important component in the appellation wines of Rioja and Navarra. In France the variety is called Morrastel and is recommended in the south, but little remains, possibly because of its relatively low yield. The area of Graciano in Australia is very small. The variety should not be confused with the so-called Morrastel of South Australia, which is really Mataro, nor with the Mourastel imported from California, which is Carignan. In Algeria, large areas of Mataro were mistakenly called Morrastel. Xeres imported from California proved to be Graciano.

Graciano produces a red wine that is strongly coloured and high in acid and tannin, and ages well. The wines are full-bodied, of high quality and with a delicate bouquet.

Source: Vines for Wines. A Wine Lover’s Guide to the Top Wine Grape Varieties. By George Kerridge and Angela Gackle

Richard Jennings: “Delicious Wine and Food Travel? Visit Rioja”

By Richard Jennings – @rjonwine on twitter

Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/richard-jennings/delicious-wine-food-trave_b_1938253.html

I thoroughly enjoyed my trip this past summer to one of Spain’s oldest and most renowned wine regions, Rioja. The scenery in this vast river valley in northeastern Spain is entrancing, ringed by picturesque mountain ranges and filled with vineyards and medieval hilltop towns. The locally grown food stuffs are super fresh and flavorful. The wines are delicious and full of history and interest. And the people could not be more gracious. I am dying to go back, and I encourage fellow lovers of food and wine to consider prioritizing Rioja as a delicious and delightful vacation destination.

To start with the food, Rioja’s ideal growing conditions produce a literal cornucopia of very tasty, fresh produce and meats. I had peaches, pears, asparagus, mushrooms and melons there that I’m still dreaming about. Camerano cheese is a smooth, rich product that has been made from goats milk in the region for over 1,000 years. Delicious meats, like locally raised chicken, pork and lamb, as well as freshly made chorizo and melt-in-your-mouth jamon iberico are plentiful and reasonably priced.

An ideal way to sample some of the fresh food stuffs is to visit the tapas bars. Two of the most renowned streets for tapas in the region are Calle Laurel in the big, capital city of Logroño, and on and around Calle Santo Tomás in the small, historic town of Haro.

I recommend taking a casual stroll down these streets in the refreshing night air and stopping in the first one that strikes your fancy. Ask what their specialty is–maybe salt cod in a black olive tapenade, roast suckling pig, grilled white asparagus with Camerano cheese, or a “tortilla,” which in Spain is a potato omelet.

Tapas in Logroño
The ideal drink with tapas is a glass of red Rioja, preferably a Crianza — which is a younger, medium-bodied wine with some oak aging — from one of the region’s many great producers. Most tapas bars there have a dozen or more to chose from. Just order one or two small plates to eat. When you’re done with that first appetizer or two, stroll on down to the next tapas bar and order their specialty. Continue on until you’re quite full and you will have tasted a wide array of freshly made delicacies and made your mouth and stomach very happy.

Al fresco dining in Haro
There are also plenty of fine dining establishments. For a good list, I recommend the two travel guides — one to Logroño and the other for Haro — at winetravelguides.com, by Tom Perry. Tom is an American who has lived in Rioja and worked in the wine industry there for decades. Other great suggestions on where to stay, taste and dine can be found in the Discover Rioja section of the Rioja Wine Board’s site.

As far as wineries go, you have several hundred to choose from. Almost all of them require that you schedule your tour and tasting in advance — hardly any have regular hours when they’re open without a reservation. But it’s easy to make a reservation through many wineries’ websites. For suggested itineraries, including groups of wineries located near each other, I again recommend Tom Perry’s online guides and RiojaWine.com.

One of the most convenient and historical places to start is with some of the great, traditional bodegas located near Haro. Many of these were built after Haro’s train station was finished in 1880. There you can find R. López de Heredia Viña Tondonia, La Rioja Alta, Bodegas Bilbaínas and Muga, among others.

Haro is also where a major festival, the Battle of Wine, takes place on June 29 each year. Our group of American wine bloggers participated this year and our white, disposable clothing got completely soaked with red wine, which is just how it’s supposed to be. Tourists come from all over the country and throughout Europe to join in this happy, thoroughly messy event, which is followed by impromptu cookouts down the hill from the site of the morning melee. There are also big gatherings the night before and after in the main square in Haro.

RJ and fellow survivors of the Battle of Wine
Other great bodegas that welcome visitors, with advance reservations, include those I’ve written about at length in other posts here: Franco-Espanolas, Hermanos Peciña, Miguel Merino, San Vicente and Sierra Cantabria.

There are also wineries with stunning architecture, like Frank Gehry’s “City of Wine,” housing the Marques de Riscal hotel next to the 18th century bodega, and the striking, undulating Bodegas Ysios, designed by Santiago Calatrava, whose arches and curves echo those of the mountain range behind it.

Bodegas Ysios
Another must-see destination in Rioja for all wine lovers is the massive wine museum outside the medieval walled town of Briones in Rioja Alta. It’s called the Dinastía Vivanco Museum of the Culture of Wine, and it’s located right next to the Dinastía Vivanco winery, one of the few in Rioja that’s open regular hours for tours and tasting.

The museum is billed as the world’s biggest wine museum, and I have no reason to doubt this claim. It is by far the greatest and most extensive I have yet visited, the result of 40 years of collecting by the Vivanco Family. The museum has three beautifully designed floors including not only ancient winemaking artifacts and treasures, but also richly produced videos explaining aspects of the wine production process, and a gallery of artworks from all ages celebrating the fruits of the vine. I was particularly fascinated by displays containing samples of glass wine bottles as they developed, gradually, into their current forms, starting with ancient Roman examples. The museum also features a mindboggling collection of over 5,000 imaginative (and sometimes pornographic) corkscrews, dating back to the late 1700s.

View of the medieval walled town of Briones from the grounds of Dinastía Vivanco
The winery here is one of Rioja’s most modern and lavish, and well worth a tour. For notes on Dinastía Vivanco’s wines, which are quite good, in a concentrated, modern style, see the complete report on my blog in: http://www.rjonwine.com/rioja/wine-food-travel/

If you’ve visited Rioja, I urge you to share a comment or two about it here. I know I’ll be back soon. Maybe I’ll meet you there.

Red Wine Grapes

Cabernet Sauvignon is the most well-known member of the Carmenet family of grape cultivars. Its renown comes from its involvement in most Bordeaux wines (and equivalents). Other members of the family include Merlot and Malbec. Their inclusion in Bordeaux blends moderates the tannin content donated primarily by Cabernet Sauvignon. The tendency of Merlot to mature more quickly has made it a popular substitute for Cabernet Sauvignon. Under optimal conditions, Cabernet Sauvignon yields a fragrant wine possessing a black-currant aroma. Under less favorable conditions, it generates a predominant bell-pepper aroma. Cabernet Sauvignon probably is the offspring of an accidental crossing between grapes related to, if not identical with, Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon blanc.

Gamay noir is the primary, white-juiced, Gamay cultivar. Its reputation has risen in association with the popularity of Beaujolais wines. Crushed and fermented by standard procedures, Gamay produces a light red wine with few distinctive characteristics. However, when processed by carbonic maceration, it yields a distinctively fruity wine. Most of these features come from the grape-berry fermentation phase of carbonic maceration.

Nebbiolo is generally acknowledged as producing the most highly regarded red wine in northwestern Italy. With traditional vinification, it produces a wine high in acid and tannin content that requires years to mellow. The color has a tendency to oxidize rapidly. Common aroma descriptors include tar, violets, and truffles.

Pinot noir is the most famous Noirien grape variety. It is particularly environmentally sensitive, producing its typical fragrance (beets, peppermint, or cherries) only occasionally. The cultivar exists as a varied collection of distinctive clones. Usually, the more prostrate, lower-yielding clones produce the more flavorful wines. The upright, higher-yielding clones are more suited to the production of rose and sparkling wines. The South African cultivar, Pinotage, is a cross between Pinot noir and Cinsaut.

Sangiovese is an ancient cultivar consisting of many distinctive clones, grown extensively throughout central Italy. It is most well known for the light- to full-bodied wines from Chianti, but also produces many fine red wines elsewhere in Italy. Under optimal conditions, it yields a wine possessing an aroma considered reminiscent of cherries, violets, and licorice. Sangiovese is also labeled under local synonyms, such as Brunello and Prugnolo, used in producing Brunello di Montalcino and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano wines, respectively.

Shiraz (Syrah in France) has become famous for yielding a deep red tannic wine with long aging potential in Australia. This has helped Syrah regain the prominence it once held in the Rhone Valley of France. Its wines are peppery with aspects reminiscent of violets, raspberries, and currants.

Tempranillo is probably the finest Spanish red-grape variety. Under favorable conditions, it yields a delicate, subtle wine that ages well. It is
the most important red cultivar in Rioja. Outside Spain, it is primarily grown in Argentina. It usually goes under the name Valdepenas in
California. Tempranillo generates an aroma distinguished by a complex, berry-jam fragrance, with nuances of citrus and incense.

Zinfandel is extensively grown in California. Its precise origin is unknown, but is clearly related to several Austrian, Croatian, and Hungarian varieties (Calo et al., 2008). This variety occurs under a variety of synonyms, such as Primitivo in Italy and Crljenak kastelanski in Croatia. Zinfandel is used to produce a wide range of wines, from ports to light blush wines. In rose versions, it shows a raspberry fragrance, whereas full-bodied red wines possess rich berry flavors.

Extract from: Wine Tasting. A Professional Handbook. By Ronald S. Jackson

How Wine Happens

Wine is, essentially, nothing but liquid, fermented fruit. The recipe for turning fruit into wine goes something like this:

1. Pick a large quantity of ripe grapes from grapevines.You could substitute raspberries or any other fruit, but 99.9 percent of all the wine in the world is made from grapes, because they make the best wines.
2. Put the grapes into a clean container that doesn’t leak.
3. Crush the grapes somehow to release their juice. Once upon a time, feet performed this step.
4. Wait.

In its most basic form, winemaking is that simple. After the grapes are crushed, yeasts (tiny one-celled organisms that exist naturally in the vineyard and, therefore, on the grapes) come into contact with the sugar in the grapes’ juice and gradually convert that sugar into alcohol. Yeasts also produce carbon dioxide, which evaporates into the air. When the yeasts are done working, your grape juice is wine. The sugar that was in the juice is no longer there — alcohol is present instead. (The riper and sweeter the grapes, the more alcohol the wine will have.) This process is called fermentation.

What could be more natural?
Fermentation is a totally natural process that doesn’t require man’s participation at all, except to put the grapes into a container and release the juice from the grapes. Fermentation occurs in fresh apple cider left too long in your refrigerator, without any help from you. In fact we read that milk, which contains a different sort of sugar than grapes do, develops a small amount of alcohol if left on the kitchen table all day long.

Speaking of milk, Louis Pasteur is the man credited with discovering fermentation in the nineteenth century. That’s discovering, not inventing. Some of those apples in the Garden of Eden probably fermented long before Pasteur came along. (Well, we don’t think it could have been much of an Eden without wine!) Modern wrinkles in winemaking Now if every winemaker actually made wine in as crude a manner as we just described, we’d be drinking some pretty rough stuff that would hardly inspire us to write a wine book.

But today’s winemakers have a bag of tricks as big as a sumo wrestler’s appetite. That’s one reason why no two wines ever taste exactly the same. The men and women who make wine can control the type of container they use for the fermentation process (stainless steel and oak are the two main materials), as well as the size of the container and the temperature of the juice during fermentation — and every one of these choices can make a big difference in the taste of the wine. After fermentation, they can choose how long to let the wine mature (a stage when the wine sort of gets its act together) and in what kind of container. Fermentation can last three days or three months, and the wine can then mature for a couple of weeks or a couple of years or anything in between. If you have trouble making decisions, don’t ever become a winemaker.

The main ingredient
Obviously, one of the biggest factors in making one wine different from the next is the nature of the raw material, the grape juice. Besides the fact that riper, sweeter grapes make a more alcoholic wine, different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, or Merlot, for example) make different wines. Grapes are the main ingredient in wine, and everything the winemaker does, he does to the particular grape juice he has. Chapter 3 covers specific grapes and the kinds of wine they make.

Local flavor
Grapes, the raw material of wine, don’t grow in a void. Where they grow — the soil and climate of each wine region, as well as the traditions and goals of the people who grow the grapes and make the wine — affects the nature of the ripe grapes, and the taste of the wine made from those grapes. That’s why so much of the information there is to learn about wine revolves around the countries and the regions where wine is made.

Extract from: Wine for Dummies by Ed McCarthy (Certified Wine Educator) and Mary Ewing-Mulligan (Master of Wine)